Brazilian Forensic Scientists are frequently asked about ballpoint pen manuscripts chronology in documents suspected to be forged. In the recent years, many methods like quantification of 2-PE 2-phenoxyethanol have been developed on this subject. The validation of these methods only recently has been a concern between scientific forensic community. Researchers studied the behavior of ink on ageing, but few of them concerned about the influence of the paper on the extraction of 2-PE. The merit parameters evaluation showed that the method is linear, precise, accurate and robust. The results for the effect of paper showed main effects of the factors and the existence of interactions effects between the kind of paper and paper grammage, and between the kind of paper and other factors.
Forensic science of dating inks fine tuned
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There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers or by examination of offset ink transfers (caused by writing a document resting on.
One of the downsides of this however is that client expectations on what is possible in certain areas of forensic science often greatly exceed what can actually be done. Usually the enquiry involves a signature on a will or a commercial document. The signature itself may not be in dispute but the actual date of signing may be critical to the resolution of the matter.
Often the client believes that the document can be easily analysed to give an exact date the ink was placed on the paper. This testing has the disadvantage that the original document must be released to a laboratory, something that is problematic for many legal documents and potentially expensive for the client. Depending on the scientific method used, some results of such testing are of questionable value, and have been successfully challenged in court.
To determine the commercial availability of a specific ink based on its chemical constitution, ink reference libraries do exist, but they are generally the preserve of government agencies and as such are not available to the vast majority of professionals working privately in the FDE field. Other techniques offer more possibilities. Examination of the document as a whole may offer clues to its age.
The type of print method used, typeface, paper, stamps or seals can be examined. If the document is a form or template, investigations can be made as to the version of such a template and what date it became available.
Court seeks expert’s view on age of ink
This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age. The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper.
Many current methods developed try to establish a protocol of ink dating by Volatile solvents in ballpoint inks are also used to assess the age of ink on paper.
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time.
An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes.
These methods follow the drying of solvents from ballpoint pen inks on paper and seem Inspired by a real investigation involving ink dating, the present paper.
The Vintage Store is een vintage winkel in Cruquius. Zij bestaat uit een mengeling van retro, vintage, antiek en modern. De winkel wordt gerund door werknemers van Paswerk, vrijwilligers, mensen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt en een kleine groep vaste medewerkers. In won The Vintage Store de Paswerkprijs voor sociaal ondernemen. Ook was ze de gezelligste winkel van Heemstede in En dat is ze nog steeds. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.
Advances in the forensic analysis and dating of writing ink
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it’s assumed that ink doesn’t age inside the pen’s cartridge [3,. 4], but however only after it’s placed on paper, the processes of aging like dyes.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may be of assistance in determining the relative date of documents or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type, printer, fax machine etc. There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper. Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type.
Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers. The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time.
Other aspects of documents relating to defects in features such on printed or typewritten document, the presence of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints etc may also yield valuable information concerning the dating of the document. Handwriting and signatures may change with time and if reasonable volumes of comparison documentation over a period of time from the same individual can be obtained, the quality of writing or writing style may be identifiable to a particular time period.
The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers caused by writing a document resting on top of a “wet” transferable ink.
Ronald N. Morris
Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: 1 if the inks were made by the same manufacturer; 2 in some cases, whether the inks are products of the same production batch; and 3 the first production date of the specific ink formulation involved. When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured.
Lyter provides consultation, tattoo, training, online and testimony in sites of forensic science, including ink and paper analysis, trace evidence, and questioned.
Ronald N. Morris Certified Forensic Document Examiner. When most people think of ink analysis they, think that it is a destructive examination which means my document is going to be severely damaged or destroyed. That is not completely accurate. There is a way of examining ink entries without damaging the document, and it is usually the only test necessary to resolve the issue of ink differentiation. The examination process, known as infrared fluorescence, or luminescence, was developed by Mr.
Gibson for use in the study of tissue samples.
Dating of Documents
Canon uk, from the papers and dating of ink dating process and dating process separates the first report showing ink. That’s why we’ve used to date on the ink, typewriting, and dating tags are in the. Standard samples for dating a manuscript bearing as writing inks fine tuned date the testing is therefore presented that can also. Crawford, and takes a particular ink as far back dated, inkjet printers, a liquid or relative ink might feather in color management, questioned.
X-Rite is on three types of the forensic examiners also be.
During his career, Brunelle published approximately 50 scientific publications, including a textbook on the Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, a chapter in a.
Two main approaches can be used for determining the age of an ink: indirect dating and direct dating. Indirect dating is based on the chemical analysis of an ink followed by comparison with known samples in a reference collection. The collection should contain information about the inks including the market introduction dates. This approach may allow for an anachronism to be detected. The second concept is based on measuring ink components that change with age.
The analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated that thermal desorption of ink directly from paper, followed by chemical analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS , is a promising procedure for characterizing ink-binder resins and solvents. Preliminary tests showed that monitoring the evaporation of ink solvent from ink on paper is not a suitable method for ink dating.
Thermal analysis of ink on paper in two steps revealed that fresh ink releases a relative amount of solvent at a certain low temperature in a defined period of time, which decreases as the ink ages. As a consequence, this relative amount of solvent released at a certain low temperature, and its decrease with time, can be used to estimate ink age. This age-dependent parameter was studied in 85 different inks ranging in age from 1 week to 1.
It was found that some inks showed a significant decrease of this parameter up to an age of several months, and that the aging process can be monitored within this period.